Using Kotlin Coroutines with Spring

Before Spring 5.2, you can experience Kotlin Coroutines by the effort from community, eg. spring-kotlin-coroutine on Github. There are several features introduced in Spring 5.2, besides the functional programming style introduced in Spring MVC, another attractive feature is that Kotlin Coroutines is finally get official support.

Kotlin coroutines provides an alternative approach to write asynchronous applications with Spring Reactive stack, but in an imperative code style.

In this post, I will rewrite my reactive sample using Kotlin Coroutines with Spring.

Generate a Spring Boot project using Spring initializr.

  • Language: Kotlin
  • Spring Boot version : 2.2.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT
  • Dependencies: Web Reactive

Open the pom.xml file , add some modification.

Add kotlin-coroutines related dependencies in the dependencies section.

<dependency>
<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlinx</groupId>
<artifactId>kotlinx-coroutines-core</artifactId>
<version>${kotlinx-coroutines.version}</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.jetbrains.kotlinx</groupId>
<artifactId>kotlinx-coroutines-reactor</artifactId>
<version>${kotlinx-coroutines.version}</version>
</dependency>

Define a kotlin-coroutines.version in the properties.

<kotlinx-coroutines.version>1.2.0</kotlinx-coroutines.version>

Kotlin coroutines 1.2.0 is compatible with Kotlin 1.3.30, define a kotlin.version property in the pom.xml file to use this version.

<kotlin.version>1.3.30</kotlin.version>

Spring Data are busy in adding Kotlin Coroutines support. Currently Spring Data R2DBC got basic coroutines support in itsDatabaseClient. In this sample, we use Spring Data R2DBC for data operations.

Add Spring Data R2DBC related dependencies, and use PostgresSQL as the backend database.

<dependency>
<groupId>org.springframework.data</groupId>
<artifactId>spring-data-r2dbc</artifactId>
<version>${spring-data-r2dbc.version}</version>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>org.postgresql</groupId>
<artifactId>postgresql</artifactId>
</dependency>
<dependency>
<groupId>io.r2dbc</groupId>
<artifactId>r2dbc-postgresql</artifactId>
</dependency>

Declare a spring-data-r2dbc.version property to use latest Spring Data R2DBC .

<spring-data-r2dbc.version>1.0.0.BUILD-SNAPSHOT</spring-data-r2dbc.version>

Enables Data R2dbc support by subclassing AbstractR2dbcConfiguration.

@Configuration
@EnableR2dbcRepositories
class DatabaseConfig : AbstractR2dbcConfiguration() {
override fun connectionFactory(): ConnectionFactory {
return PostgresqlConnectionFactory(
PostgresqlConnectionConfiguration.builder()
.host("localhost")
.database("test")
.username("user")
.password("password")
.build()
)
}
}

Create a data class which is mapped to the table posts.

@Table("posts")
data class Post(@Id val id: Long? = null,
@Column("title") val title: String? = null,
@Column("content") val content: String? = null
)

Follow the Reactive stack to Kotlin Coroutines translation guide provided in Spring reference documentation, create a repository class for Post.

@Component
class PostRepository(private val client: DatabaseClient) {
suspend fun count(): Long =
client.execute().sql("SELECT COUNT(*) FROM posts")
.asType<Long>().fetch().awaitOne()
fun findAll(): Flow<Post> =
client.select().from("posts").asType<Post>().fetch().flow()
suspend fun findOne(id: Long): Post? =
client.execute()
.sql("SELECT * FROM posts WHERE id = \$1")
.bind(0, id).asType<Post>()
.fetch()
.awaitOneOrNull()
suspend fun deleteAll() =
client.execute()
.sql("DELETE FROM posts")
.fetch()
.rowsUpdated()
.awaitSingle()
suspend fun save(post: Post) =
client.insert()
.into<Post>()
.table("posts")
.using(post)
.await()
suspend fun init() {
save(Post(title = "My first post title", content = "Content of my first post"))
save(Post(title = "My second post title", content = "Content of my second post"))
}
}

Create a @RestController class for Post.

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/posts")
class PostController(
private val postRepository: PostRepository
) {
@GetMapping("")
fun findAll(): Flow<Post> =
postRepository.findAll()
@GetMapping("{id}")
suspend fun findOne(@PathVariable id: Long): Post? =
postRepository.findOne(id) ?: throw PostNotFoundException(id)
@PostMapping("")
suspend fun save(@RequestBody post: Post) =
postRepository.save(post)
@GetMapping("{id}/comments")
fun findCommentsByPostId(@PathVariable id: Long): Flow<Comment> =
commentRepository.findByPostId(id)
}

You can also initialize data in a CommandLineRunner bean or listen the @ApplicationReadyEvent, use a runBlocking to wrap coroutines tasks.

runBlocking {
val deleted = postRepository.deleteAll()
println(" $deleted posts was cleared.")
postRepository.init()
}

To run the application successfully, make sure there is a running PostgreSQL server. I prepared a docker compose file to simply run a PostgresSQL server and initialize the database schema in a docker container.

docker-compose up

Run the application now, it should work well as the previous Reactive examples.

In additional to the annotated controllers, Kotlin Coroutines is also supported in functional RouterFunction DSL using the coRouter to define your routing rules.

@Configuration
class RouterConfiguration {
@Bean
fun routes(postHandler: PostHandler) = coRouter {
"/posts".nest {
GET("", postHandler::all)
GET("/{id}", postHandler::get)
POST("", postHandler::create)
PUT("/{id}", postHandler::update)
DELETE("/{id}", postHandler::delete)
}
}
}

Like the changes in the controller, the PostHandler is written in an imperative style.

@Component
class PostHandler(private val posts: PostRepository) {
suspend fun all(req: ServerRequest): ServerResponse {
return ok().bodyAndAwait(this.posts.findAll())
}
suspend fun create(req: ServerRequest): ServerResponse {
val body = req.awaitBody<Post>()
val createdPost = this.posts.save(body)
return created(URI.create("/posts/$createdPost")).buildAndAwait()
}
suspend fun get(req: ServerRequest): ServerResponse {
println("path variable::${req.pathVariable("id")}")
val foundPost = this.posts.findOne(req.pathVariable("id").toLong())
println("found post:$foundPost")
return when {
foundPost != null -> ok().bodyAndAwait(foundPost)
else -> notFound().buildAndAwait()
}
}
suspend fun update(req: ServerRequest): ServerResponse {
val foundPost = this.posts.findOne(req.pathVariable("id").toLong())
val body = req.awaitBody<Post>()
return when {
foundPost != null -> {
this.posts.update(foundPost.copy(title = body.title, content = body.content))
noContent().buildAndAwait()
}
else -> notFound().buildAndAwait()
}
}
suspend fun delete(req: ServerRequest): ServerResponse {
val deletedCount = this.posts.deleteById(req.pathVariable("id").toLong())
println("$deletedCount posts was deleted")
return notFound().buildAndAwait()
}
}

Besides annotated controllers and functional router DSL, Spring WebClient also embrace Kotlin Coroutines.

@RestController
@RequestMapping("/posts")
class PostController(private val client: WebClient) {
@GetMapping("")
suspend fun findAll() =
client.get()
.uri("/posts")
.accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
.awaitExchange()
.awaitBody<Any>()
/*
@GetMapping("")
suspend fun findAll(): Flow<Post> =
client.get()
.uri("/posts")
.accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON)
.awaitExchange()
.awaitBody()
*/
@GetMapping("/{id}")
suspend fun findOne(@PathVariable id: Long): PostDetails = withDetails(id)
private suspend fun withDetails(id: Long): PostDetails {
val post =
client.get().uri("/posts/$id")
.accept(APPLICATION_JSON)
.awaitExchange().awaitBody<Post>()
val count =
client.get().uri("/posts/$id/comments/count")
.accept(APPLICATION_JSON)
.awaitExchange().awaitBody<Long>()
return PostDetails(post, count)
}
}

In the withDetails method, post and count call remote APIs one by one in a sequence.

If you want to perform coroutines in parallel, use async context to wrap every calls, and put all tasks in a coroutineScope context. In PostDetails, to build the results, use await to wait the completion of the remote calls.

private suspend fun withDetails(id: Long): PostDetails = coroutineScope {
val post = async {
client.get().uri("/posts/$id")
.accept(APPLICATION_JSON)
.awaitExchange().awaitBody<Post>()
}
val count = async {
client.get().uri("/posts/$id/comments/count")
.accept(APPLICATION_JSON)
.awaitExchange().awaitBody<Long>()
}
PostDetails(post.await(), count.await())
}

Check out the codes from Github.

Written by

Self-employed technical consultant, solution architect and full-stack developer

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