Introduction to R2dbc

In contrast to the blocking nature of Jdbc, R2dbc allows you to access with relational databases using none-blocking APIs, R2dbc embraces the Reactive Streams spec, and provides a community-driven open specification which includes a collection of Service Provider Interface(SPI) to the database vendors to implement their own drivers.

To connect to databases, you should add corresponding drivers into your project dependencies.

R2dbc drivers

Currently there are a few drivers ready for production, check the R2dbc drivers page for the complete list.

H2 database is frequently used in development environment, add the following dependency when using either embedded or file-based H2 database.

<dependency>
<groupId>io.r2dbc</groupId>
<artifactId>r2dbc-h2</artifactId>
</dependency>

To use R2dbc with MySQL database, add the following dependency instead.

<dependency>
<groupId>dev.miku</groupId>
<artifactId>r2dbc-mysql</artifactId>
</dependency>

R2dbc also supports MariaDB — the MySQL fork .

For Postgres database, use Postgres R2dbc driver.

<dependency>
<groupId>io.r2dbc</groupId>
<artifactId>r2dbc-postgresql</artifactId>
</dependency>

R2dbc has good support of Microsoft SQL Server.

<dependency>
<groupId>io.r2dbc</groupId>
<artifactId>r2dbc-mssql</artifactId>
</dependency>

If you have installed desired databases, and make sure it is running. Now you can connect it via R2dbc’s ConnectionFactory.

Connecting to Databases

Internally R2dbc spec provides a ConnectionFactories utility class to create a ConnectionFactory from connection URL or ConnectionFactoryOptions.

The following is an example of obtaining a H2 specific ConnectionFactory from URL, it will connect to an embedded H2 database.

ConnectionFactories.get("r2dbc:h2:mem:///test?options=DB_CLOSE_DELAY=-1;DB_CLOSE_ON_EXIT=FALSE")

Let’s look at another example of Postgres connection URL.

ConnectionFactories.get("r2dbc:postgres://user:password@localhost/test");

The details of the URL form is described in the R2dbc spec doc.

The following is an example of getting a ConnectionFactory from ConnectionFactoryOptions.

var options = ConnectionFactoryOptions.builder()
.option(ConnectionFactoryOptions.HOST, "localhost")
.option(ConnectionFactoryOptions.DATABASE, "test")
.option(ConnectionFactoryOptions.USER, "user")
.option(ConnectionFactoryOptions.PASSWORD, "password")
.option(ConnectionFactoryOptions.DRIVER, "postgresql")
//.option(PostgresqlConnectionFactoryProvider.OPTIONS, Map.of("lock_timeout", "30s"))
.build();
return ConnectionFactories.get(options);

Most of the R2dbc drivers provide its private utility classes to create a ConnectionFactory.

For example, you can create an embedded or file-based H2 database using H2ConnectionFactory like this.

H2ConnectionFactory.inMemory("test");//file
new H2ConnectionFactory(
H2ConnectionConfiguration.builder()
//.inMemory("testdb")
.file("./testdb")
.username("sa")
.password("password")
.build()
)

Similarly Postgres drivers also provides a PostgresConnectionFactory to create a ConnectionFactory instance.

new PostgresqlConnectionFactory(
PostgresqlConnectionConfiguration.builder()
.host("localhost")
.database("test")
.username("user")
.password("password")
//.codecRegistrar(EnumCodec.builder().withEnum("post_status", Post.Status.class).build())
.build()
);

The driver specific utility class is more easy to setup database specific features, eg. enable the Enum codec in Postgres.

Once you get a ConnectionFactory, calling the create method to create a Publisher<Connection>, which is similar to the Jdbc's Connection, but is based on Reactive Streams APIs.

Executing SQL queries

Utilizing with the Connection.createStatement, you can execute SQL queries like insert, update or delete etc. The following example is creating a table and then inserting some data into the table on a H2 database.

String createSql = """
CREATE TABLE IF NOT EXISTS persons (
id SERIAL PRIMARY KEY,
first_name VARCHAR(255),
last_name VARCHAR(255),
age INTEGER
)
""";
String insertSql = """
INSERT INTO persons(first_name, last_name, age)
VALUES
('Hello', 'Kitty', 20),
('Hantsy', 'Bai', 40)
""";

Mono.from(conn)
.flatMap(
c -> Mono.from(c.createStatement(createSql).execute())
)
.log()
.doOnNext(data -> log.info("created: {}", data))
.then()
.thenMany(
Mono.from(conn)
.flatMapMany(
c -> c.createStatement(insertSql)
.returnGeneratedValues("id")
.execute()
)
)
.flatMap(data -> Flux.from(data.map((row, rowMetadata) -> row.get("id"))))
.doOnNext(id -> log.info("generated id: {}", id))

In the above codes, we used Project Reactor to wrap the connection and simplify the Reactive Streams pipeline operations. The returnGeneratedValues("id") method will fetch the generated id when inserting a row into a table.

Let’s have a look at another select statement.

var selectSql = """
SELECT * FROM persons;
""";

Mono.from(conn)
.flatMapMany(
c -> Flux.from(c.createStatement(selectSql).execute())
)
.log()
.flatMap(result -> result
.map((row, rowMetadata) -> {
rowMetadata.getColumnMetadatas()
.forEach(
columnMetadata -> log.info("column name:{}, type: {}", columnMetadata.getName(), columnMetadata.getJavaType())
);

var id = row.get("id", Integer.class);
var firstName = row.get("first_name", String.class);
var lastName = row.get("last_name", String.class);
var age = row.get("age", Integer.class);
return Person.builder().firstName(firstName)
.lastName(lastName)
.age(age)
.id(id)
.build();
}))
.doOnNext(data -> log.info(": {}", data))

After it is executed, to extract the row data from the query result, you can call the map method to get the details of row data and row metadata.

You can also bind parameters to placeholders in SQL query strings.

var selectSql = """
SELECT * FROM persons WHERE first_name=$1
""";

Mono.from(conn)
.flatMapMany(
c -> Flux.from(c.createStatement(selectSql)
.bind("$1", "Hantsy")
.execute())
)

H2 accepts $ as prefix in the parameter placeholders. But it is database specific, for MSSQL database, the prefix should be a @.

When executing a update query, you can get the number of updated rows.

var updateSql = """
UPDATE persons SET first_name=$1 WHERE first_name=$2
""";
Mono.from(conn)
.flatMapMany(
c -> Flux.from(c.createStatement(updateSql)
.bind("$1", "test1")
.bind("$2", "Hantsy")
.execute())
.flatMap(result -> result.getRowsUpdated())
.doOnNext(data -> log.info(": {}", data))
)
.log()

Similarly executing a delete query is also easy to get the number of affected rows.

R2dbc Clients

There are some client libraries which wraps R2dbc’s Connection, Statement etc, and hide the complexity of the raw R2dbc APIs.

In Spring, there is a new refactored DatabaseClient brought in the upcoming Spring 5.3. Spring Data R2dbc provides a light ORM mapping features based on DatabaseClient.

We will explore the DatabaseClient in the next post.

You can get the sample codes from my github.

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